Integral Calculus

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Integral calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with the summation of infinitesimally small quantities. It is one of the two main branches of calculus, along with differential calculus. Integral calculus is used to calculate areas, volumes, lengths, and other quantities.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that relates the two branches of calculus. It states that the definite integral of a function can be calculated by finding the antiderivative of the function and then evaluating the antiderivative at the upper and lower limits of integration.

Types of Integrals

There are two main types of integrals: indefinite integrals and definite integrals.

  • Indefinite integrals do not have upper or lower limits of integration. They are used to find the antiderivative of a function.
  • Definite integrals do have upper and lower limits of integration. They are used to calculate the area, volume, or other quantity under a curve.

Applications of Integral Calculus

Integral calculus has a wide range of applications in mathematics, science, and engineering. Some of the most common applications include:

  • Calculating areas
  • Calculating volumes
  • Calculating lengths
  • Solving differential equations
  • Modeling physical systems


Integral calculus is a powerful tool that can be used to solve a wide variety of problems. It is a fundamental part of mathematics and is essential for understanding many other mathematical concepts.

Here are some additional details about integral calculus:

  • Antiderivatives are functions whose derivative is the given function. For example, the antiderivative of x2 is 3x3​.
  • Riemann sums are a method for approximating the value of an integral. They are based on dividing the interval of integration into subintervals and then summing the areas of the rectangles that are formed.
  • The fundamental theorem of calculus can be used to prove that the Riemann sum converges to the value of the definite integral as the number of subintervals tends to infinity.

I hope this article has given you a basic understanding of integral calculus. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask.

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