Bromic Acid Formula

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Understanding Bromic Acid Formula: Properties, Structure, and Applications

Bromic acid, with the chemical formula HBrO3, is an important oxoacid of bromine. It belongs to the family of halogen oxoacids, which are compounds containing a halogen atom (in this case, bromine) bonded to oxygen atoms. Bromic acid is a colorless, odorless substance that is soluble in water. In this article, we will delve into the properties, structure, and applications of bromic acid.

Chemical Structure:

The chemical structure of bromic acid consists of a central bromine atom bonded to three oxygen atoms and one hydrogen atom. It is a tetrahedral molecule with a central bromine atom bonded to three oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The hydrogen atom is attached to one of the oxygen atoms. The molecular formula can be represented as HBrO3.

Bromic Acid Structure

HBrO3 is the most stable isomer.

Physical Properties Of Bromic Acid

  • The Molecular weight of Bromic acid is  128.91 g/mol.
  • It has a Conjugate base is Bromate.
  • The pKa of this acid is −2.
  • The Complexity is 46.2.


Bromic acid is a strong acid, and in aqueous solution, it dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and bromate ions (BrO3-). The dissociation of bromic acid can be represented by the following equation: HBrO3 → H+ + BrO3- It is important to note that bromic acid is a weaker acid compared to hydrochloric acid (HCl) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4), but it is stronger than hypobromous acid (HBrO) and bromous acid (HBrO2).

Bromic acid is highly soluble in water, and its solutions are stable under normal conditions. However, it is a powerful oxidizing agent and can react vigorously with reducing agents, combustible materials, and organic compounds.


  1. Chemical Synthesis: Bromic acid is primarily used in chemical synthesis, especially in the preparation of various bromine compounds. It is employed in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, and other organic compounds.
  2. Analytical Chemistry: Bromic acid is used as a reagent in analytical chemistry for the determination of certain compounds. It can be utilized in titration methods to analyze reducing agents and other substances.
  3. Water Treatment: Bromic acid and its derivatives are sometimes used in water treatment processes. They can act as disinfectants, helping to eliminate bacteria, algae, and other microorganisms from water supplies.
  4. Bleaching Agent: Bromic acid can be employed as a bleaching agent in industries such as textile, pulp, and paper. It helps to remove colorants and impurities from various materials.
  5. Photography: Bromic acid has historical significance in photography. It was once used in the preparation of silver bromide, a light-sensitive compound used in photographic film and papers.

Bromic acid, also known as hydrogen bromate, is an oxoacid with the chemical formula HBrO3. It’s a colorless solution that can decompose into bromine at room temperature, giving it a yellowish tinge.

Here’s a breakdown of the formula:

  • H: Represents one hydrogen atom.
  • Br: Represents one bromine atom.
  • O3: Represents a bromate ion (BrO3-), a polyatomic ion composed of one bromine atom and three oxygen atoms.

Safety Considerations:

Bromic acid and its solutions can be corrosive and harmful upon contact with skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Proper safety precautions, including the use of protective equipment such as gloves and goggles, should be followed when handling this substance.

In conclusion, bromic acid is a significant compound with various applications in industries ranging from chemical synthesis to water treatment. Its properties as a strong acid and oxidizing agent make it useful in diverse fields, albeit requiring careful handling due to its corrosive nature. Understanding its chemistry and applications is essential for its safe and effective utilization.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What type of acid is Bromic acid?


Bromic acid is a bromine oxoacid. It is a conjugate acid of a bromate. During its decomposition to bromine at room temperature, the colour of the solution changes yellow. It  is a powerful oxidizing agent.

Question 2: Calculate the molecular weight of Bromic Acid.


Formula of Bromic Acid is: HBrO3

Its molecular weight will be:

= 1.00794 + 79.904 + 3 × 15.999

= 128.909 gram per mole.

Question 3: What happens when bromic acid reacts with zinc?


When bromic acid reacts with zinc then it forms zinc bromide and releases hydrogen gas and O3. This is the example of Displacement reaction here displacement reaction take place because zinc (Zn) is more reactive than hydrogen.

2HBrO+ Zn ⇢ ZnBr2 + H2 + 2O3

Question 4: Is bromic acid soluble in water?


Bromic acid is soluble in water, gives Hydrobromic acid releasing hydrogen and oxygen gas.

HBrO3 + H2O ⇒ HBr + H+ 2O2.

Question 5: What are the effects of Bromic acid?


Bromic acid causes eye and skin burns. It causes digestive and respiratory tract burns. It may also be fatal if inhaled or swallowed.

Question 6: What is the mass of bromic acid (HBrO3) which reacts with excess HBr to produce 25.67g of b Bromine that is 74.2% effective? 


HBrO3 + 5HBr ⇢ 3Br+ 3H2O

1 mol HBrO3 reacts with 5 HBr to produce 3 mol Br2.

Molar mass Br2 = 79.9 g/mol × 2 = 159.8 g /mol.

Mole of Br2 in 25.67 g Br= 25.67g / 159.8 g/mol = 0.1606.

Hence it will require,0.1606 mol / 3 = 0.0535 mol HBrO3.

Molar mass HBrO= 1+79.9 + (3×16) = 128.9 g/mol.

Mass of 0.0535 mol = 0.0535 mol ×128.9 g/mol = 6.896 g HBrO3 required.

But, reaction has yield = 74.2%.

Mass of HBrO3 requires 6.896 g ×100%/ 74.2% = 9.294 g HBrO3 required.

Hence, 9.29 g HBrOis required.

Question 7: What can we get barium bromate Ba(BrO3)2) is treated with sulphuric acid H2SO4?


When barium bromate is treated with sulphuric acid, we get bromic acid and barium sulfate in precipitated form.

Ba(BrO3)2 + H2SO4 ⇢ 2HBrO+ BaSO4.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) – Bromic Acid Formula

1. What is bromic acid? Bromic acid is a chemical compound composed of hydrogen, bromine, and oxygen, with the chemical formula HBrO3. It is an oxoacid of bromine and exists as a colorless solution.

2. What is the chemical formula for bromic acid? The chemical formula for bromic acid is HBrO3.

3. What is the structure of bromic acid? Bromic acid has a trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry, with the bromine atom at the center, surrounded by three oxygen atoms. Each oxygen atom forms a single covalent bond with the bromine atom.

4. How is bromic acid formed? Bromic acid can be formed by the reaction between bromine and water, typically in the presence of an oxidizing agent. Alternatively, it can be synthesized by the reaction of bromine with a strong oxidizing agent such as sulfuric acid.

5. What are the properties of bromic acid? Bromic acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidizing agent. It is highly soluble in water and forms a colorless solution. At room temperature, it is stable, but it decomposes upon heating or exposure to light, releasing oxygen gas and forming bromine.

6. What are the uses of bromic acid? Bromic acid has limited practical uses due to its instability and strong oxidizing nature. It is primarily used in chemical synthesis, particularly in the production of organic compounds. It also finds applications in analytical chemistry and as a laboratory reagent.

7. Is bromic acid dangerous? Bromic acid and its solutions are corrosive and can cause severe burns upon contact with the skin or eyes. Inhalation of its vapors or dust can irritate the respiratory tract. It should be handled with appropriate safety precautions in a well-ventilated area, and protective equipment such as gloves and goggles should be worn.

8. Can bromic acid be found in nature? Bromic acid is not found in nature in significant quantities. However, it may be formed transiently in certain chemical reactions involving bromine-containing compounds and oxidizing agents.

9. How is bromic acid different from other bromine-containing acids? Bromic acid is one of the oxoacids of bromine, along with hypobromous acid (HBrO) and bromous acid (HBrO2). Unlike bromic acid, hypobromous acid and bromous acid are unstable and exist primarily in aqueous solution. Bromic acid is the most stable and fully ionized of the three acids.

10. Can bromic acid be substituted in chemical reactions? In some cases, bromic acid can be substituted with other oxidizing agents or acids depending on the specific requirements of a chemical reaction. However, its unique properties make it indispensable in certain synthetic procedures where strong oxidation is needed. Always consult relevant literature or a qualified chemist before substituting bromic acid in a reaction.

What is bromic acid?

Bromic acid is a strong inorganic acid with the chemical formula HBrO3. It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in water and decomposes upon heating.

What is the chemical formula of bromic acid?

The chemical formula of bromic acid is HBrO3.

What are the properties of bromic acid?

  • Physical state: Colorless liquid
  • Odor: Odorless
  • Melting point: -61 °C
  • Boiling point: decomposes at 120 °C
  • Solubility: Soluble in water

How is bromic acid produced?

Bromic acid is produced by the reaction of bromine with ozone in water.

What are the uses of bromic acid?

Bromic acid is a relatively rare chemical and does not have many commercial uses. However, it is used in some niche applications, such as:

  • Fire retardants: Bromic acid can be used as a flame retardant in textiles and plastics.
  • Analytical chemistry: Bromic acid is used as an oxidizing agent in some analytical chemistry applications.

Is bromic acid safe?

Bromic acid is a corrosive and oxidizing agent and can cause skin and eye irritation. It is important to handle bromic acid with care and wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves, goggles, and a respirator.

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