Antimony(V) Chloride Formula

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Antimony V Chloride

Antimony V Chloride Formula- Antimony V chloride or Antimony Penta chloride is a chemical compound that is colorless. But, its distinctive samples are yellowish due to impurities. It has the tendency to hydrolyze to hydrochloric acid. Besides, it is highly corrosive and carbonizes non-fluorinated plastics. Furthermore, antimony V chloride is an adaptable reagent especially as a Lewis acid catalyst in many organic reactions such as isomerization and rearrangements, electrophilic aromatic substitution, preparation of carbocation and onium ion complexes, halogenation, etc. They are moderate to highly concentrated liquid solutions.

Antimony V Chloride formula and structure

Its chemical formula is Cl5Sb or SbCl5. It has a molar mass of 299.01 g·mol−1. In its structure the antimony 5 chloride atoms surround Sb. Furthermore, the gaseous SbCl5 has a trigonal bipyramidal structure.

Preparation of Antimony pentachloride

Firstly, we can produce it by saturating molten antimony trichloride with chlorine after which it follows vacuum distillation. Another method of preparing antimony pentachloride is by the direct chlorination of antimony and the chlorination of antimony oxides or sulfides.


Hydrolyzes of antimony pentachloride give hydrochloric acid and antimony oxychlorides. In the presence of an excess of chlorine this reaction suppresses, owing to the formation of the hexachloridoantimonate complex ion:

SbCl5+ Cl→ [SbCl6]

Besides, its monohydrate is SbCl5·H2O and tetrahydrates is SbCl5·4 H2O. With many Lewis bases, this compound forms adducts. In the Gutmann scale of Lewis basicity, it is a standard Lewis acid. Moreover, it is a strong oxidizing agent. It reacts with fumes in the air to form hydrochloric acid. Moreover, it reacts with water to yield heat and antimony pentaoxides (Sb2O5) and hydrochloric acid.

Application and uses of antimony V chloride

We use it as a polymerization catalyst and for the chlorination of organic compounds. To solubilize materials its application is an excellent source.

Physical properties of antimony V chloride

It has a density of 2.36 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.) and has a melting point of 2.8 oC(lit.). On the other hand, the boiling point is 92 oC30 mmHg(lit.). Furthermore, its vapor density is >10.2 (vs air) and vapor pressure is 0.13 psi (55 oC). It is soluble in HCl, chloroform, hydrochloric acid, tartaric acid, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon tetrachloride miscible with chloroform. Also, it is soluble in water but reacts with it. In addition, it is moisture sensitive and is stable. But, it reacts with water and moisture. Furthermore, if involved in the fire then it releases highly toxic fumes.

Chemical properties of antimony V chloride

It is liquid that is colorless or has a reddish-yellow oily liquid. It is noncombustible and has a pungent odor.

Uses of antimony V chloride

In organic compounds, we use it as a catalyst to replace fluorine substituent with chlorine. Also, antimony V chloride is a strong Lewis acid and a Useful chlorine carrier. Furthermore, chloride lost in a number of reactions that result in the formation of adducts. Also, we use it as a polymerization catalyst and as an analysis (testing for alkaloids and cesium), dying intermediates.

Antimony V chloride safety and health hazard

It is a highly corrosive substance that’s why we need to store it away from heat and moisture. It causes burns on the skin and eyes. Inhaling it can cause irritation of nose and throat. Its Ingestion causes vomiting and severe burns of mouth and stomach. In addition, overexposure of antimony V chloride by any route can cause bloody stools, slow pulse, coma, low blood pressure, and cardiac arrest. It releases hydrogen chloride gas in the presence of moisture, as it is a chlorinating agent.

Solved example for you

Question: How we can prepare antimony V chloride?

Solution: We can prepare antimony pentachloride by passing chlorine gas into molten antimony trichloride:

SbCl3 + Cl→ SbCl5

Sample Questions

Question 1. What are the harmful effects of Antimony(V)chloride on the human body?


The harmful effects of Antimony(V)chloride on the human body are enlisted below:

  • It can burn the oral cavity and gastrointestinal if accidentally swallowed.
  • Its inhalation causes dizziness, headache weakness, and nausea.
  • The vaporized form of Antimony(V)chloride can cause eye irritation.

Question 2. What is the refractive index of Antimony(V)chloride?


The refractive index of Antimony(V) chloride is 1.59 at 22°C.

Question 3. Where can we see the most potential use of Antimony(V)chloride?


We can see the use of Antimony(V)chloride in dyeing, coloring metals, and as a catalyst in organic chemical reactions.

Question 4. What type of bond is found in Antimony(V)chloride?


The antimony(V)chloride is a compound with five chorines and a single antimony atom. The chlorine atoms of the compound share a covalent bond with antimony(Sb). 

Question 5. What is the preparation process of Antimony(V)chloride?


Antimony(V) chloride is prepared by passing chlorine gas into antimony trichloride.

SbCl3+Cl2  ⇢  SbCl5

Question 6. How is the compound Antimony(V)chloride is stored?


 Antimony (V) chloride is highly corrosive in nature it is stored away from heat and moisture as in the presence of moisture it releases harmful hydrogen chloride gas.

What is antimony V chloride solution?

Antimony(V) Chloride Solution Properties (Theoretical)

Compound FormulaCl5Sb
Density2.36 g/mL (25 °C)
Solubility in H2ON/A
Exact Mass295.748 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass295.748 g/mol

What is the name for SbCl3?

Antimony trichloride

Antimony trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SbCl3. It is a soft colorless solid with a pungent odor and was known to alchemists as butter of antimony.

What is the Lewis structure of antimony V chloride?

The Antimony (V) chloride structure is trigonal bipyramidal. The antimony atom is in the centre to which are joined five chloride atoms with ionic bonding.

What is the formula for antimony?

Antimony is a chemical element; it has symbol Sb (from Latin stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3).

What element is antimony V?

Antimony(V) Oxide or Antimony Pentoxide is a highly insoluble thermally stable Antimony source suitable for glass, optic and ceramic applications. Antimony oxide is found in nature as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite and is the most significant commercial compound of antimony.

How do you make antimony chloride?

Antimony trichloride may be prepared by treating antimony with chlorine while maintaining an excess of antimony at all times. It may be prepared, also, by dissolving antimony oxide in a large excess of concentrated hydrochloric acid, but in doing this the oxychloride is always formed.

What is antimony chloride used for?

Antimony Trichloride is a clear, colorless crystalline (sand- like) material. It is used to make Antimony salts and drugs, to fireproof textiles, and as a reactant in many organic reactions.

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